Nutrición e hiperuricemia

Contenido principal del artículo

Estrella Menéndez E.
Cristina Milano
Florencia Alassia
Roxana Carreras
Marcela Casonú
Myriam Cipres
Yanina Maccio
Lorena Mañez
Mariela Volta
Alicia Ester Elbert

Resumen

El aumento de la incidencia y prevalencia de hiperuricemia asintomática, la que está fuertemente asociada a los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares clásicos y la dificultad para definir su tratamiento con drogas ha jerarquizado al tratamiento dietético, a los efectos de identificar los alimentos que pueden tener efectos protectores sobre el nivel de ácido úrico plasmático (AU). Los niveles del AU dependen de la producción endógena (10%), disminución de la excreción (90%) o de ambas. La producción del AU depende de la ingesta de purina, sin embargo, una dieta rica en purina sería responsable solo de un aumento en 1 a 2 mg / dl del AU sérico. La pérdida < 5 kg disminuye hasta un 45% el riesgo de aumentar el AU, mientras que pérdidas superiores reducirían al menos el 60% del riesgo. De igual manera, el descenso del peso máximo y la estabilidad del peso disminuyen el riesgo de hiperuricemia. Se sugiere que este descenso no sea brusco para evitar el catabolismo muscular que puede conducir a sarcopenia con pérdida de la fuerza y debilidad muscular y aumento concomitante del AU. Reducen los niveles séricos de AU: leche, yogur y quesos blancos, las frutas ricas en vitamina C, huevos, frutas secas sin sal, legumbres (incluidas la soja) y pollo, salmón, bacalao y langosta. Debe limitarse las carnes rojas (cerdo, ternera, cabrito), y evitarse mariscos, pescados (trucha, atún, palometa, vieiras, anchoa, arenque, sardinas y atún en aceite), tocino, vísceras, pavo, cordero.

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1.
Menéndez E. E, Milano C, Alassia F, Carreras R, Casonú M, Cipres M, Maccio Y, Mañez L, Volta M, Elbert AE. Nutrición e hiperuricemia. Rev Nefrol Dial Traspl. [Internet]. 1 de diciembre de 2016 [citado 27 de febrero de 2021];36(4):246-52. Disponible en: http://www.revistarenal.org.ar/index.php/rndt/article/view/95
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