Experiencias de pacientes en hemodiálisis con restricción de dieta y de líquidos: metasíntesis
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Palabras clave

pacientes en hemodiálisis
experiencia
metasíntesis cualitativa
dieta renal
restricción de líquidos

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1.
Özkan İlknur, Taylan S. Experiencias de pacientes en hemodiálisis con restricción de dieta y de líquidos: metasíntesis. Rev Nefrol Dial Traspl. [Internet]. 15 de marzo de 2022 [citado 26 de junio de 2022];42(1):22-0. Disponible en: http://www.revistarenal.org.ar/index.php/rndt/article/view/754

Resumen

Introducción: El incumplimiento de la dieta y la restricción de líquidos es un problema de comportamiento común e importante en la población en hemodiálisis, con impacto en el estado de salud, y que se asocia con aumento de la morbimortalidad. Por lo tanto, investigar las percepciones y experiencias de los pacientes en hemodiálisis con respecto a la dieta y a la restricción de líquidos es muy importante para alcanzar el manejo de los mismos. Material y métodos: Este es un estudio de metasíntesis. Para la revisión de la literatura se utilizaron las bases de datos electrónicas CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, OVID y Scopus. Los estudios se evaluaron críticamente utilizando la herramienta de evaluación crítica de Joanna Briggs. Fueron extraídos los datos cualitativos, meta-resumidos y luego meta-sintetizados. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó el método de análisis temático. Resultados: Esta revisión consistió en 23 estudios cualitativos. Las experiencias de los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis en relación con la dieta y la restricción de líquidos se clasificaron en tres temas principales, a saber, "el significado de la dieta y la restricción de líquidos para el paciente", "barreras percibidas" y "estrategias de manejo propias del paciente para la dieta y la restricción de líquidos". Conclusión: Los resultados de la síntesis en nuestro estudio indicaron que los pacientes en hemodiálisis percibían la dieta y la restricción de líquidos como un proceso complejo y desafiante que implicaba una lucha constante. Algunas barreras personales, sociales y sistémicas percibidas por los pacientes dificultaron aún más el cumplimiento de las indicaciones. Más importante aún, se determinó que la mayoría de los pacientes no recibieron suficiente apoyo en el manejo de la dieta y la restricción de líquidos y que habían desarrollado estrategias por sí mismos. De acuerdo con estos resultados, recomendamos aumentar los servicios de asesoramiento individual para la restricción dietética-líquida de los pacientes en hemodiálisis, considerar los obstáculos percibidos por ellos al planificar la restricción dietética-líquida y realizar una planificación que sea realista y factible.

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