Litiasis renal y riesgo cardiovascular
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Abib A, del Valle EE, Laham G, Spivacow FR. Litiasis renal y riesgo cardiovascular. Rev Nefrol Dial Traspl. [Internet]. 16 de julio de 2019 [citado 7 de diciembre de 2021];39(2):126-33. Disponible en: http://www.revistarenal.org.ar/index.php/rndt/article/view/437

Resumen

La litiasis renal (LR) es una enfermedad frecuente cuya prevalencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. En la actualidad se la considera como una patología sistémica, no limitada al riñón y a las vías urinarias, sino relacionada en gran medida a diabetes mellitus, obesidad, hipertensión arterial, hiperuricemia, hipercolesterolemia y enfermedad renal crónica, todos factores de riesgo cardiovascular que suelen vincularse a eventos severos como accidentes cerebrovasculares, enfermedad coronaria o infarto agudo de miocardio. Numerosos estudios transversales y meta-análisis han demostrado la asociación entre estas dos entidades. En esta revisión intentaremos demostrar los mecanismos involucrados en la fisiopatología de la LR y su relación con enfermedad cardiovascular. Como mecanismos involucrados, se mencionan tres asociaciones. La primera se refiere al estrés oxidativo y la inflamación. La segunda asociación se refiere a la presencia de mecanismos litogénicos que contribuyen a la calcificación vascular. Como última teoría se realiza la asociación ya conocida, de obesidad, síndrome metabólico, diabetes e HTA, todos factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de LR así como de enfermedad cardiovascular, recordando que la LR es causa, en un 8%, del desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica, otro factor de riesgo para enfermedad y muerte cardiovascular. Como conclusión se confirma la teoría de que la LR no es una enfermedad limitada al riñón y la vía urinaria, si no que se trata de una enfermedad sistémica, con riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares tan severos que pueden llevar a la muerte.

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