Vitamina D, sus acciones “no clásicas” y su utilidad en la pandemia del COVID-19

Contenido principal del artículo

José Luis Mansur

Resumen

El descubrimiento de que la síntesis de 1,25 vitamina D no fue solo renal, la enzima 1 alfa hidroxilasa se encuentra en numerosos tejidos del organismo, además de la evidencia de que la asociación entre el déficit de vitamina D y la presencia de enfermedades no óseas (cáncer, esclerosis múltiple, enfermedades autoinmunes, etc.) nos ofrece la posibilidad de intentar prevenir estas afecciones. Los estudios de suplementación contra placebo no han dado resultados positivos para algunas afecciones, aunque algunos de esos trials se realizaron en población “suficiente” y no “deficiente” de vitamina D. Sin embargo, otros metaanálisis han demostrado prevención en los grupos suplementados con déficit para algunas patologías (infecciones respiratorias, prediabetes). Además, existe evidencia de efecto antiviral de la misma. La acción antiinfecciosa e inmunomoduladora que ejerce y su efecto sobre el sistema renina angiotensina, estimulando la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (que es el receptor virus del SARS-CoV), permiten sospechar, actualmente, que con niveles elevados podría ser más difícil, o menos grave, la infección por COVID-19. La suplementación con vitamina D es conveniente para prevenir enfermedades en sujetos con déficit, pero en medio de la grave pandemia 2020 administrarla, aún sin tener un dosaje previo en las poblaciones de mayor riesgo, podría disminuir la chance de esta enfermedad.

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1.
Mansur JL. Vitamina D, sus acciones “no clásicas” y su utilidad en la pandemia del COVID-19. Rev Nefrol Dial Traspl. [Internet]. 15 de diciembre de 2020 [citado 15 de abril de 2021];40(4):330-4. Disponible en: https://www.revistarenal.org.ar/index.php/rndt/article/view/576
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